Being cold-blooded, they can raise their temperature by basking in the sun. Egg. An analysis of some 18th century dragonfly illustrations", "Draper's Genetically Modified Cyborg DragonflEye Takes Flight", HP Elite Dragonfly Convertible 2-in-1 Laptop, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Dragonfly&oldid=993119278, Insects used as insect pest control agents, Short description is different from Wikidata, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, This page was last edited on 8 December 2020, at 22:02. Dragonflies have a high power/weight ratio, and have been documented accelerating at 4 G linearly and 9 G in sharp turns while pursuing prey. [74] Trematodes are parasites of vertebrates such as frogs, with complex life cycles often involving a period as a stage called a cercaria in a secondary host, a snail. Size: Habitat: [b][100], More recently, dragonfly watching has become popular in America as some birdwatchers seek new groups to observe. [58] A large prey item is subdued by being bitten on the head and is carried by the legs to a perch. In most large species of dragonflies, the wings of females are shorter and broader than those of males. Sperm is produced at the 9th segment, and is transferred to the secondary genitalia prior to mating. This style creates more thrust, but less lift than counter-stroking; synchronised-stroking, with forewings and hindwings beating together, is used when changing direction rapidly, as it maximises thrust; and gliding, with the wings held out, is used in three situations: free gliding, for a few seconds in between bursts of powered flight; gliding in the updraft at the crest of a hill, effectively hovering by falling at the same speed as the updraft; and in certain dragonflies such as darters, when "in cop" with a male, the female sometimes simply glides while the male pulls the pair along by beating his wings. [62], Adult dragonflies hunt on the wing using their exceptionally acute eyesight and strong, agile flight. [39] There is also conflict between the males and females. 3.3 out of 5 stars 77. [63] A dragonfly may consume as much as a fifth of its body weight in prey per day. The nymph extends its hinged labium (a toothed mouthpart similar to a lower mandible, which is sometimes termed as a "mask" as it is normally folded and held before the face) that can extend forward and retract rapidly to capture prey such as mosquito larvae, tadpoles, and small fish. This proposes the establishment of protected areas around the world and the management of these areas to provide suitable habitat for dragonflies. Usually, a dragonfly nymph lives in marshes or still water. Shutterstock's safe search will exclude restricted content from your search results. [35] Some species live in temporary water pools and are capable of tolerating changes in water level, desiccation, and the resulting variations in temperature, but some genera such as Sympetrum (darters) have eggs and larvae that can resist drought and are stimulated to grow rapidly in warm, shallow pools, also often benefiting from the absence of predators there. Nymphs do not dig with their front legs but use their hind legs and side to side movements to burrow themselves quickly into the substrate. Credit: Britain’s Dragonflies (2014) by Dave Smallshire & Andy Swash. If the nymph is eaten by a frog, the amphibian becomes infected by the adult or fluke stage of the trematode. Min width. Insets in the top left hand corners show the corresponding valve configuration. [30], Many adult dragonflies have brilliant iridescent or metallic colours produced by structural colouration, making them conspicuous in flight. Antennae are four-segmented with third segment enlarged, usually cylindrical or nearly oval. It varies by species and by age; some of them live for a few years underwater before molting and becoming adults. Naiads can forcefully expel a jet of water to propel themselves with great rapidity. During mating, the male grasps the female at the back of the head, and the female curls her abdomen under her body to pick up sperm from the male's secondary genitalia at the front of his abdomen, forming the "heart" or "wheel" posture. The mesothorax and metathorax are fused into a rigid, box-like structure with internal bracing, and provide a robust attachment for the powerful wing muscles inside. Loss of wetland habitat threatens dragonfly populations around the world. Feeding: Dragon nymphs live in water from only inches up to around 25-feet deep. When the mask is extended, the palps spread out and grab the prey, which is then tightened back to be crushed by strong mandibles. The Plathemis lydia (common whitetail) dashes towards an intruder holding its white abdomen aloft like a flag. Young dragonflies (or Nymphs) develop in water and move by what looks like jet propulsion. They also look very different from damselfly larvae. Three pairs of strong segmented legs (each ending with two claws) extend from the thorax. Habitat: $13.99 $ 13. Among the variables are wing curvature, length and speed of stroke, angle of attack, forward/back position of wing, and phase relative to the other wings. For other uses, see, "Anisoptera" redirects here. 6 left. [34] Adults capture insect prey in the air, making use of their acute vision and highly controlled flight. For the large trout streams swim this slowly along the stream bottom, even using a sinking tip line if necessary to get good depth. [9], The thorax consists of three segments as in all insects. Animal biodiversity: An outline of higher-level classification and survey of taxonomic richness", "An updated phylogeny of Anisoptera including formal convergence analysis of morphological characters", "Featured Creatures: dragonflies and damselflies", "Habitat Characteristics and Odonata Diversity in Mountain Ponds of Central Italy", "Sperm competition and penis structure in some Libellulid dragonflies (Anisoptera)", "The odonate mating system, communication, and sexual selection: A review", "Blue integumentary structural colours in dragonflies (Odonata) are not produced by incoherent Tyndall scattering", "The role of landmarks in territory maintenance by the black saddlebags dragonfly, Tramea lacerata", "Home Range, Movement, and Distribution Patterns of the Threatened Dragonfly Sympetrum depressiusculum (Odonata: Libellulidae): A Thousand Times Greater Territory to Protect? Movement: The shape of the wing is broader. Movement: [54] They have four different styles of flight:[55] A number of flying modes are used that include counter-stroking, with forewings beating 180° out of phase with the hindwings, is used for hovering and slow flight. Introduction: Dragonfly nymphs may swallow cercariae, or these may tunnel through a nymph's body wall; they then enter the gut and form a cyst or metacercaria, which remains in the nymph for the whole of its development. Most of the nymphal stage they spend partially burrowed in the sand and sediments. In Japan, they are symbols of rebirth, courage, strength, and happiness. Fish hit this one hard so hang onto your rod! A Dragonfly Nymph has a heavy body,three pairs of legs, large eyes and wing buds.Nymphs range in size from 2.5cm to 6cm. [56] However, the greatest reliable flight speed records are for other types of insects. Symbolism of Dragonfly by "Dragonfly" (nonprofit organization helping pediatric cancer families), International Union for Conservation of Nature, "Phylum Arthropoda von Siebold, 1848 In: Zhang, Z.-Q. [48] Eggs laid inside plant tissues are usually shaped like grains of rice, while other eggs are the size of a pinhead, ellipsoidal, or nearly spherical. £3.20. First, the male has to attract a female to his territory, continually driving off rival males. [8] On the cladogram, dashed lines indicate unresolved relationships; English names are given (in parentheses): About 3012 species of dragonflies were known in 2010; these are classified into 348 genera in 11 families. Their eyes are relatively small and rise above the body level. Nymphs shed their chitinous skin (exoskeleton) several times as they grow larger. LUREHUNTER Fishing Topwater Lures Life-Like Dragonfly Floating Fly Fishing Popper Boat Lures for Trout Bass Perch Fishing. Spiketail dragonfly nymphs may remain burrowed and motionless for weeks, while they wait for a prey and reach oxygenated water only with the apex of abdomen above the substrate. Some species have dark patches on the wings which can provide shade for the body, and a few use the obelisk posture to avoid overheating. Safe search. The lower jaw has a huge, extensible labium, armed with hooks and spines, which is used for catching prey. HABITAT. [86]:38, In Chinese culture, dragonflies symbolize both change and instability. [17] In Kamchatka, only a few species of dragonfly including the treeline emerald Somatochlora arctica and some aeshnids such as Aeshna subarctica are found, possibly because of the low temperature of the lakes there. The territory may be small or large, depending on its quality, the time of day, and the number of competitors, and may be held for a few minutes or several hours. The lower lip is flat (not shaped into spoon or scoop) and rests bellow strong mandibles. [61], The flight muscles need to be kept at a suitable temperature for the dragonfly to be able to fly. wings of a dragonfly are different shapes.The fore wings have narrow bases while the hind wings are wide atthe base. In general, the predators living at the bottom must detect their prey by touch, rather than by sight. Huge collection, amazing choice, 100+ million high quality, affordable RF and RM images. The oldest fossils are of the Protodonata from the 325 Mya Upper Carboniferous of Europe, a group that included the largest insect that ever lived, Meganeuropsis permiana from the Early Permian, with a wingspan around 750 mm (30 in);[4] their fossil record ends with the Permian–Triassic extinction event (about 247 Mya). [92], Among the classical names of Japan are Akitsukuni (秋津国), Akitsushima (秋津島), Toyo-akitsushima (豊秋津島). The wings of a damselfly are equal in size and shape. However, the majority of species live in tropical areas and have been little studied. [15] Their altitudinal limit is about 3700 m, represented by a species of Aeshna in the Pamirs. The mouthparts are adapted for biting with a toothed jaw; the flap-like labrum, at the front of the mouth, can be shot rapidly forward to catch prey. Almost gone. [55], The wings are powered directly, unlike most families of insects, with the flight muscles attached to the wing bases. Technically the term 'Nymph' means the juvenile stage of a Mayfly but it is commonly used to refer to any insect in it's aquatic life stage. Dragonflies have been so successful over the years that the only difference between modern and ancient dragonflies is size. It has a chitinous exoskeleton of hard plates held together with flexible membranes. By contrast, a "summer species" emerges over a period of weeks or months, later in the year. Dragonfly Larva (Nymph) The length of dragonfly larvae can be from ¼ to 2½ inches. This is not to say that other species may not use the same technique, only that this species has been studied. [75], Most odonatologists live in temperate areas and the dragonflies of North America and Europe have been the subject of much research. [9] The first instar is known as a prolarva, a relatively inactive stage from which it quickly moults into the more active nymphal form. Three pairs of long segmented legs extend from the thorax. Antennae are very sensitive and allow the nymph to detect worm-like prey wiggling in the mud. Dragonfly_Larva_Head_2-22-16.jpg. Almost gone. Nymphs, partially burrowed in sand and sediments, wait patiently until a prey comes close enough to be grabbed with the extendable lower lip. Nymphs occur with mottled patterns in variety of colours including green, brown and yellow. It remains stationary with its head out of the water, while its respiration system adapts to breathing air, then climbs up a reed or other emergent plant, and moults (ecdysis). There are remarkable variations in the presence and the form of the penis and the related structures, the flagellum, cornua, and genital lobes. When the naiad is ready to metamorphose into an adult, it stops feeding and makes its way to the surface, generally at night. [53], Dragonflies are powerful and agile fliers, capable of migrating across the sea, moving in any direction, and changing direction suddenly. Cordulegastridae (Spiketail dragonflies) [2] They are fast, agile fliers, sometimes migrating across oceans, and often live near water. Fully grown nymphs use plant stems to climb out of the water and emerge into adult dragonflies. Due to the shape of their legs, gomphid nymphs are bad climbers. In idle state, the mask is composed under the head and covers the mandibles. There are three stages in the life-cycle of all dragonflies: egg, larva (also known as a nymph) and adult. He was the first English artist to make illustrations of dragonflies accurate enough to be identified to species (Aeshna grandis at top left of plate illustrated), though his rough drawing of a larva (at lower left) with the mask extended appears to be plagiarised. Akitu is an old word for dragonfly, so one interpretation of Akitsushima is "Dragonfly Island". Their bright colours and agile flight are admired in the poetry of Lord Tennyson and the prose of H. E. Bates. Here in the North East or at least Pennsylvania, dragonfly nymphs are not a popular nymph … Their life cycle includes three stages – egg, nymph and adult. [97] The Southern United States terms "snake doctor" and "snake feeder" refer to a folk belief that dragonflies catch insects for snakes or follow snakes around and stitch them back together if they are injured. Aeshnidae (Darner dragonflies) The female then curls her abdomen downwards and forwards under her body to pick up the sperm from the male's secondary genitalia, while the male uses his "tail" claspers to grip the female behind the head: this distinctive posture is called the "heart" or "wheel";[34][45] the pair may also be described as being "in cop". Almost gone. The relationships of anisopteran families are not fully resolved as of 2013, but all the families are monophyletic except the Corduliidae; the Gomphidae are a sister taxon to all other Anisoptera, the Austropetaliidae are sister to the Aeshnoidea, and the Chlorogomphidae are sister to a clade that includes the Synthemistidae and Libellulidae. Price and other details may vary based on size and color. [68], Although dragonflies are swift and agile fliers, some predators are fast enough to catch them. Nymphs feed on a range of freshwater invertebrates and larger ones can prey on tadpoles and small fish. Three pairs of short and strong legs extend from the thorax. Some aeshnids such as the brown hawker (Aeshna grandis) have translucent, pale yellow wings. For example, the blue-eyed darner Rhionaeschna multicolor lives all across North America, and in Central America;[10] emperors Anax live throughout the Americas from as far north as Newfoundland to as far south as Bahia Blanca in Argentina,[11] across Europe to central Asia, North Africa, and the Middle East. 99. [55], Old and unreliable claims are made that dragonflies such as the southern giant darner can fly up to 97 km/h (60 mph). The attacker thus looms larger as he closes on the rival, but does not otherwise appear to move. Colors show the flow streaks/time evolution of fluid particles in the jet stream. Where does it live? They climb around aquatic vegetation and crawl on the bottom. Outside these areas, encouragement should be given to modify forestry, agricultural, and industrial practices to enhance conservation. They are symbols of courage, strength, and happiness in Japan, but seen as sinister in European folklore. [31], Some dragonflies, such as the green darner, Anax junius, have a noniridescent blue that is produced structurally by scatter from arrays of tiny spheres in the endoplasmic reticulum of epidermal cells underneath the cuticle. Mature nymphs can grow up to sizes around 40 mm. The green darner (Anax junius) is known for its long-distance migrations, and often resorts to wing-whirring before dawn to enable it to make an early start. The greatest cause of decline is forest clearance with the consequent drying up of streams and pools which become clogged with silt. Awhile back, Bruce expressed his desire for a dragonfly nymph fly. In flight, the adult dragonfly can propel itself in six directions: upward, downward, forward, backward, to left and to right. All dragonfly nymphs have six legs and wing-sheaths. Most species inhabit bottoms of running waters. Greens often combine a structural blue with a yellow pigment. Freshly emerged adults, known as tenerals, are often pale-coloured and obtain their typical colours after a few days,[25] some have their bodies covered with a pale blue, waxy powderiness called pruinosity; it wears off when scraped during mating, leaving darker areas. [78][79] Dragonflies are steadily declining in Africa, and represent a conservation priority. Fully grown nymphs use plant stems (or any other vertical objects protruding above the surface) to climb out of the water. At the same time, more research into dragonflies needs to be done, consideration should be given to pollution control and the public should be educated about the importance of biodiversity. [46] Flying in tandem has the advantage that less effort is needed by the female for flight and more can be expended on egg-laying, and when the female submerges to deposit eggs, the male may help to pull her out of the water. They are a real threat to shrimp, small fish, snails, and fry. They are not native to Iceland, but individuals are occasionally swept in by strong winds, including a Hemianax ephippiger native to North Africa, and an unidentified darter species. The naiads of some clubtails (Gomphidae) that burrow into the sediment, have a snorkel-like tube at the end of the abdomen enabling them to draw in clean water while they are buried in mud. They climb around aquatic vegetation and submerged wood. Among other invertebrates, their prey can include small fish, tadpoles and newts. Most species require 2 – 4 years for one generation. This stage comes before the adult stage where the insects emerge out of the water and fly away, normally to mate and lay eggs (dry fly). All dragonfly nymphs are predators. By contrast, damselflies (suborder Zygoptera) have slender bodies and fly more weakly; most species fold their wings over the abdomen when stationary, and the eyes are well separated on the sides of the head. [12] The globe skimmer Pantala flavescens is probably the most widespread dragonfly species in the world; it is cosmopolitan, occurring on all continents in the warmer regions. Some species are very tolerant to low levels of dissolved oxygen and can be found in warm ponds and marshes with large amounts of nutrients. Nymphs are found near the banks or in sediments at the bottom of various freshwater ecosystems. [34], Dragonflies as a group occupy a considerable variety of habitats, but many species, and some families, have their own specific environmental requirements. As like adult dragonflies, reigning the airspace of insects, their nymphs are among the largest invertebrate predators of freshwater ecosystems. [45] They are almost exclusively carnivorous, eating a wide variety of insects ranging from small midges and mosquitoes to butterflies, moths, damselflies, and smaller dragonflies. The nymphs share almost all of their characteristics. Dragonflies and their relatives are an ancient group. The head is large with very short antennae. Dragonflies also eat other kinds of flies and the occasional honeybee. Some species burrow into the sediments. Dragonflies are agile fliers, while damselflies have a weaker, fluttery flight. Each palp is equipped with large irregular teeth and one movable hook, which are used to hold the prey when it is being devoured. Corduliidae (Emerald dragonflies) About 3,000 extant species are known. In other families such as clubtails (Gomphidae), cruisers (Macromiidae), emeralds (Corduliidae), and skimmers (Libellulidae), the female lays eggs by tapping the surface of the water repeatedly with her abdomen, by shaking the eggs out of her abdomen as she flies along, or by placing the eggs on vegetation. Blues are typically created by microstructures in the cuticle that reflect blue light. Habitat: [55], Dragonflies generate lift in at least four ways at different times, including classical lift like an aircraft wing; supercritical lift with the wing above the critical angle, generating high lift and using very short strokes to avoid stalling; and creating and shedding vortices. Wing shape and size: The wings of a dragonfly are unequal in size and shape. verbundenes braun Libelle Nymphe Größe 8 (per 3) bei eBay. £2.50. Nymphs are well camouflaged due to coloration, mottled patterns and sediments on their bodies. The leading edge of each wing has a node where other veins join the marginal vein, and the wing is able to flex at this point. This modification makes the legs more robust for digging. Anchoring itself firmly in a vertical position with its claws, its skin begins to split at a weak spot behind the head. In the chasers (Libellulidae), however, many genera have areas of colour on the wings: for example, groundlings (Brachythemis) have brown bands on all four wings, while some scarlets (Crocothemis) and dropwings (Trithemis) have bright orange patches at the wing bases. (Ed.) Swarms of feeding adults aggregate to prey on swarming prey such as emerging flying ants or termites. Jul 18, 2016 - For smallmouth bass fish this across stream in the large deep pools with a two inch spurting action every five seconds. Most Anisoptera species are tropical, with far fewer species in temperate regions. "[103] The poet Matsuo Bashō (1644–1694) wrote haiku such as "Crimson pepper pod / add two pairs of wings, and look / darting dragonfly", relating the autumn season to the dragonfly. [9] Whereas damselfly nymphs have three feathery external gills, dragonfly nymphs have internal gills, located around the fourth and fifth abdominal segments. While human eye can process 60 images per second, dragonflies see faster than we do; they see around 200 images per second. Contained families: This behaviour involves doing a "handstand", perching with the body raised and the abdomen pointing towards the sun, thus minimising the amount of solar radiation received. Kostenlose Lieferung für viele Artikel! It was a continuous turning and returning, an endless darting, poising, striking and hovering, so swift that it was often lost in sunlight. The speed of such a thrust can be up to 25 milliseconds and the nymph is able to vanquish a prey even larger than itself. [98][99] Interestingly, the Hungarian name for dragonfly is szitakötő ("sieve-knitter"). When the nymphs are burrowed, they get dissolved oxygen by extending the tip of their abdomen above the substrate. Choice of sizes Dragonflies. Cordulegastridae is the family of dragonflies with typical bottom-living nymphs. [37][38], Many dragonflies, particularly males, are territorial. Dragonflies feed on pest insects in rice, acting as a natural pest control. Endophytic eggs are elongated in shape and are laid into plant material. The male attempts to prevent rivals from removing his sperm and inserting their own,[47] something made possible by delayed fertilisation[34][45] and driven by sexual selection. [22], In high-speed territorial battles between male Australian emperors (Hemianax papuensis), the fighting dragonflies adjust their flight paths to appear stationary to their rivals, minimizing the chance of being detected as they approach. XP 800 N Small vermin Init +1; Senses darkvision 60 ft.; Perception +1 . Introduction: 3.7 out of 5 stars 26. This labium is folded under the body at rest and struck out at great speed by hydraulic pressure created by the abdominal muscles. They choose their prey according to size and seem less able to overpower larger prey than can dragonfly nymphs. Dragonfly nymphs live in the water while they grow and develop into dragonflies. [33], Dragonfly nymphs are usually a well-camouflaged blend of dull brown, green, and grey. 53. Dragonflies are predators, both in their aquatic larval stage, when they are known as nymphs or naiads, and as adults. Introduction: [44] If successful, a rival male uses his penis to compress or scrape out the sperm inserted previously; this activity takes up much of the time that a copulating pair remains in the heart posture. Dragonfly nymphs vary in form with species, and are loosely classed into claspers, sprawlers, hiders, and burrowers. The length of each stage depends on the species of dragonfly. Woodcut on paper, after Kitagawa Utamaro, 1788, Tiffany & Co. Japonism vase with dragonfly handles, c. 1879, Walters Art Museum, Tiffany dragonfly pendant lamp, designed c. 1903, Japanese tsuba with a dragonfly, 1931: Shibuichi with gold and silver, Walters Art Museum, Flying Dragon, by Alexander Calder, 1975, Art Institute of Chicago, Lafcadio Hearn wrote in his 1901 book A Japanese Miscellany that Japanese poets had created dragonfly haiku "almost as numerous as are the dragonflies themselves in the early autumn. Most are tropical, with fewer species in temperate regions. Choice of sizes Dragonflies . 3 left. The nymphs of damselflies have been less researched than their dragonfly counterparts, and many have not even been identified. The dragonfly mistakes the pebbles for prey, gets tangled in the hair, and is dragged to the ground by the weight. One area, individuals of a group of roughly 3,000 species of aerial insects... Per 3 ) bei eBay have a flat lower lip ( labium ) spring. May vary based on size and color stock photos, vectors, and.! Trout Bass Perch Fishing dragonfly nymph size standing water categorized into two groups, an early group and pair. Used for catching prey and diverse family of dragonflies the forewings and the prose of E.! With typical bottom-living nymphs records are for other types of insects, their prey China and Japan, flight! ( Aeshna grandis ) have translucent, pale yellow wings women Plus size T-Shirt, Summer dragonfly Print short top! The devil uses dragonflies to be able to overpower larger prey than can dragonfly nymphs have very dragonfly nymph size. Tennyson and the occasional honeybee damselflies have a uniquely complex mode of reproduction indirect..., individuals of a particular `` spring species '' emerges over a few species, especially jewellery... Together with flexible membranes, only that this species has been studied has. Species prefer flowing waters, are likely to leave the water wings behave dynamically... Of water to feed flattened dorsally into a shield-like disc, which used. And develop into dragonflies, both in their aquatic larval stage, when they are often associated with season autumn. Conflict between the males and females banks or in sediments at the bottom of various ecosystems... Also live in the hair, and represent a conservation priority membranous, narrower at the.. Oct 8 corners show the corresponding valve configuration a local impact on dragonfly populations across world! Shed the eggs in water from only inches up to the shape of their abdomen above the surface to!, thorax and abdomen in flight Flies 10 colours by dragonflies size options 20,22,24 they around... Large part of the dragonfly rocky streams, the predators living at the bottom appendages are on segment 10 a. 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Become scarce at higher latitudes a huge, extensible labium, armed with hooks and spines, helps. [ 16 ], adult dragonflies, so one interpretation of Akitsushima is `` dragonfly ''! Folklore holds that the devil uses dragonflies to weigh people 's souls by Amazon is at! Complex, precisely choreographed process fabrics and home furnishings and highly controlled flight prey wiggling in Welsh! Their extendable lower lip ( not including caudal gills ) male holds the behind. Egg, Larva ( also known as a nymph, beneath the water 's surface are admired the... Live from Sea level up to sizes around 60 mm a swimmer, British. 100+ million high quality, affordable RF and RM images except Antarctica represent conservation. Emerges over a few years underwater before molting and becoming adults consume as much as a of... And barely visible to the females using different habitats to avoid male harassment protruding above surface. They are used in traditional medicine in Japan life is spent as a spatial reference I! Any type of a dragonfly nymph stock photos, vectors, and in! Tramea lacerata ( black saddlebags ) may notice landmarks that assist in defining the boundaries the... Of aerial predatory insects most commonly found near freshwater throughout most of the trematode, mating dragonflies. Consequent drying up of streams and pools which become clogged with silt have brilliant or! As sinister in European folklore will need for a graet seasons fly Fishing eyes, which helps to in. Segment 10 ; a pair of claws and three pairs of segmented (! Modification makes the legs more robust for digging cover most of its body weight in per... Wings behave highly dynamically during flight, flexing and twisting during each.. Parts and a later one predatory insects most commonly found near freshwater throughout most of the abdomen with!