L. Whole plant.
Curled dock has a long history of domestic herbal use. B. Close-up of node, showing ocrea. Leaf Tea used for heart ailments, stomachaches, inflammation, sore throat, and as a diuretic. A. J. Li, comb. The name is based on the genus Polygonum, and was first used by Antoine Laurent de Jussieu in 1789 in his book, Genera Plantarum. In addition, buckwheat always includes antioxidants such as rutin, quercetin, and other flavonoids, and HPLC fingerprint combined with antioxidant ability analysis may be a more powerful method than single HPLC fingerprint or single antioxidant analysis [65]. Several species are cultivated as ornamentals. Resistant starch content in common buckwheat is relatively higher compared with other cereals (Qin et al., 2010). The stems often have swollen nodes. A cold water infusion is useful in gravel, colds and coughs. FIGURE 8.29. The ovary consists of three united carpels that form a single locule, which produces only one ovule. Those species that do not have the nodal ochrea can be identified by their possession of involucrate flower heads. [6][14][16] Some of the genera were found not to be monophyletic and their limits have been revised. The 10 species consisted of two cultivated species (F. esculentum Moench and F. tataricum (L.) Gaertn) and eight wild species, which were F. gracilipes (Hemsl.) Haraldson, Fagopyrum urophyllum (Bur. The yields for common and tartary buckwheat are, respectively, 527 kg/ha and 1294 kg/ha (Cai et al., 2004b). Curled dock has a long history of domestic herbal use. Flowers lack a corolla and in some, the sepals are petal-like and colorful. Food: Coccoloba uvifera supplies edible fruits as well as gum kinos. Buckwheat favours warm and moist climates but can be adapted to most types of soil conditions. [7] Since then, a few more genera have been erected, and some segregates of Brunnichia, Eriogonum, and Persicaria have been given generic status in major works. Polygonaceae + Synonyms. Family: Polygonaceae. Anthocyanin pigments are present, betalains absent. The use of medicinal species is listed in Table 12.1. Copyright © 2020 Elsevier B.V. or its licensors or contributors. The leaves are usually spiral, simple, stipulate or exs-tipulate, when stipulate, stipules are typically connate into a scarious, appressed sheath extending above the node, termed an “ocrea.” The inflorescence consists of involucrate fasciculate units, the fascicles arranged in various branched or unbranched secondary inflorescences. Parts used: Rhizome. [4], Polygonaceae are very well-defined and have long been universally recognized. [7] Brandbyge followed earlier systems of plant classification in dividing Polygonaceae into two subfamilies, Eriogonoideae and Polygonoideae. Many Rheum species have food and medicinal uses. Dammer ex Diels, F. cymosum (Trev.) We use cookies to help provide and enhance our service and tailor content and ads. The Polygonaceae comprise about 1200 species[4] distributed into about 48 genera. The Polygonaceae consist of annual or perennial herbs, shrubs, lianas, vines, or trees. The group is widely distributed and is the third-largest land plant family in terms of number of species, behind only the Orchidacea… Being an account of their medicinal and other uses, chemical composition, pharmacological effects and toxicology in man and animal, 2nd edn. It can grow in semi-shade (light woodland) or no shade. An on-line version is also available.]. There are 235 Polygonaceae species and 37 varieties in China. [6][7] The family is present worldwide, but is most diverse in the North Temperate Zone. It is also taken in the treatment of pulmonary complaints because the silicic acid it contains strengthens connective tissue in the lungs. Until now, 27 buckwheat species have been named and reported in China, including two cultivated species and 25 wild species. Later still, Shao et al. Rhizomes of the Polygonatum plant may also be collected and dried to be used for their potential medical benefits. J.Chorizanthe fimbriata, spine-flower, showing 3+3 tepals. Polygonaceae is one of the largest medicinal plant families, vastly distributed worldwide, containing around 1,200 species from 48 genera. [13] Genera related to Coccoloba and Triplaris were moved from Polygonoideae to Eriogonoideae. and they were all distributed in the southwest of China; and the Flora of China proved and described them (Li, 1998). By continuing you agree to the use of cookies. Traditional medicinal uses. The investigation of wild species enriched the buckwheat germplasm resources and was of great benefit to buckwheat systematic research about the origin of cultivated buckwheat and the relationship between species in Fagopyrum Mill. C. Close-up of flowers. The results indicated that the developed method was suitable as a quality control method for rice bran in terms of identification and discrimination of the different rice brans [68]. The various kinds of cultivated and wild buckwheat species contain a lot of valuable genes which are important for breeding improvement, and they also contain abundant nutritional value and can be used to improve the quality of meal and diet structure. Family Name: Polygonaceae. (Polygonaceae): A Review M. Fascicle with involucre. (2015) and Zhou et al. We believe that, with the joint efforts of buckwheat researchers from different countries, the study of buckwheat germplasm resources will be intensified and there will be a large breakthrough in the area of breeding new varieties and exploiting new buckwheat resources. The perianth is uniseriate or appearing biseriate (actually spiral), homochla-mydeous, usually 3+3, or 5 and quincuncial (rarely 2+2), the tepals (perianth parts) basally connate, hypanthium absent or present. The embryo is situated in the center of the endosperm; the cotyledon is wide and more or less plaited. https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Polygonaceae&oldid=991931124, Short description is different from Wikidata, Articles containing potentially dated statements from March 2019, All articles containing potentially dated statements, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, This page was last edited on 2 December 2020, at 16:06. The leaves are astringent, diuretic, rubefacient and vermifuge [9, 21, 53, 178, 222]. Many species of buckwheat are grown around the world, and only two species are used as food; common buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum) and tartary buckwheat (Fagopyrum tataricum). [2] The name may refer to the many swollen nodes the stems of some species have, being derived from Greek, poly meaning 'many' and gony meaning 'knee' or 'joint'. Polygonaceae. Steward (1930) classified the Polygonaceae plants in Asia in his report, 10 species were included in Fagopyrum Mill. Buckwheat belongs to the family Polygonaceae and is in the genus Fagopyrum. In recent years multiple buckwheat wild species and wild-types of cultivated buckwheat were investigated in the southwest of China, (Ohnishi, 1991,1995; Ohsako and Ohnishi, 1998,2000; Li, 1998; Chen, 1999; Liu et al., 2008; Tang et al., 2010; Shao et al., 2011; Hou et al., 2015; Zhou et al., 2015), and the number of species in Fagopyrum Mill increased to more than twenty species. In addition to the botanical information the flora also gives basic information on habitat and some uses. pages 531-544. An infusion has been used as a treatment for gravel and stomach pains. ancestrale Ohnishi, F. homotropicum Ohnishi, F. capillatum Ohnishi, F. pleioramosum Ohnishi, F. callianthum Ohnishi, etc. The name is based on the genus Polygonum, and was first used by Antoine Laurent de Jussieu in 1789 in his book, Genera Plantarum. Common buckwheat can be milled into flour for food and feed. Later Ye and Guo (1992) and Li (1998) proved and described these species and put them into Fagopyrum Mill, too. H. Gross, Fagopyrum leptopodum (Diels) Hedberg, Fagopyrum statice (Lévl.) The species is hermaphrodite (has both male and female organs) and is pollinated by Wind. The flowers are hypogynous, small, bisexual or unisexual, actinomorphic, pedicellate, the pedicels often articulated (jointed) above, an “ocreola” often subtending individual flowers. HPLC fingerprint varied among buckwheat samples from different sources after PCA and HCA analysis, and the method can effectively distinguish Fagopyrum tataricum (L.) Gaertn and Fagopyrum esculentum Moench based on their chemical features [64]. [66] established a chromatographic fingerprint method for quality authentication of corn peptides (CPs) from Enshi, China, and 28 common peaks were found in all the CPs of corn samples. See Sanchez and Kron (2008) for a phylogenetic analysis of the family. The Polygonaceae are a family of flowering plants known informally as the knotweed family or smartweed—buckwheat family in the United States. The Polygonaceae are distinctive in having simple, spiral leaves, with or without a stipular ocrea, an inflorescence of fasciculate units, small actinomorphic flowers usually with 3+3 or 5 (quincuncial) connate tepals, a 3 [2,4] carpellate ovary with a single, basal, mostly orthotropous ovule, and a usually 3-sided achene or nutlet, anthocyanin pigments only present. J.R.N. In most cases, these herbs are made into a tea or steamed in wine, though capsules of the dried rhizomes can also be taken. Polygonum senegalense Meisen.. gummamilla (A) . (Figure 8.29). [4] The fruit of the sea grape (Coccoloba uvifera) is eaten, and in Florida, jelly is made from it and sold commercially. L. Watson and M.J. Dallwitz (1992 onwards). Tartary buckwheat has limited use in low-grade animal feed rations and is not commonly used in human food because it is bitter (Oplinger et al., 1989). Peter F. Stevens. 1993. CARYOPHYLLALES. Treated Diseases. Brandbyge wrote descriptions for 43 genera of Polygonaceae in 1993. Aims of the study: In order to assess traditional Thai claims about the therapeutic potential of medicinal plants and to select plants for future phytochemical research, nine plant species with anti-inflammatory uses were selected from Thai textbooks and assessed for their in vitro anti-inflammatory, antiproliferative and antioxidant activities. (2011) found Fagopyrum wenchuanense J. R. Shao and F. qiangcai D. Q. Bai in Wenchuan County, Aba Prefecture, Sichuan Province. ---Medicinal Action and Uses--- The Yellow Dock is applicable to all the purposes for which the other species are used. ---Medicinal Action and Uses---Stimulant, diuretic, diaphoretic, emmenagogue, efficacious in amenorrhoea. The roots of Rheum officinale are used in traditional Chinese medicine. Phytochemical screening showed that flowers extract contain alkaloids, phytosterols, diterpenes and triterpenes, amino acids and proteins, flavonoids, and phenolic compounds (Bulbul et al., 2013). Buckwheat belongs to Fagopyrum (Polygonaceae) and is widely planted worldwide, but authentication and quality control of buckwheat is difficult. Are 235 Polygonaceae species and 25 wild species present worldwide, but trees, and... Volker Bittrich ( volume editors ) an account of their medicinal and polygonaceae medicinal uses plants of the Northern Hemisphere are! Generic name had undergone many modifications some uterine derangement F. pleioramosum Ohnishi F.... Elsevier B.V. or its licensors or contributors be edible raw or cooked a! Fingerprint obtained from HPLC coupled to a UV/vis detector may be a simple and rapid for... Cultivated as a leaf vegetable for its laxative effects the resources of wild Fagopyrum Mill and Ohnishi 1991. 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