AP style recommends abbreviating any month more than five letters long when writing a date (i.e.. Jan., Feb., Aug., Sept., Oct., Nov., and Dec.). No. And if you only mention a month and year, no commas are required: It’s worth noting that these commas are much rarer in UK English. Period. Nov… However, you should use “on” with a date if it’s the first word in a sentence: On 12 July, the new law came into effect. This is the AP Stylebook’s fault. Linking verbs are a key part of English. In addition, in AP style, you should not use ordinal numbers in dates: As a default, it also suggests using the US date format since the AP Stylebook is a US English style guide. Chicago style: Please call before October 1 to reserve your room. ✗. Generally, AP style forbids starting a sentence with a numeral, recommending either spelling out the number or rephrasing the sentence. When I first started learning about punctuation, I found out that you should always have commas after words such as "today," "sometimes," "yesterday," and so on.Today, I found a website that disagrees, it says: . Associated Press style is to use dashes, not bullets, for lists that follow a colon. AP Style Resources. But long-standing editorial practice in polished writing and Hodges Harbrace rule 13b both seem very clear about avoiding comma after "So" at the beginning of a sentence, after a semicolon, or after a comma. Colon Capitalize the first word after a colon only if it is a proper noun or the start of a complete sentence. Starting with so. The first word in a quotation that is a complete sentence … The simplest rule-of-thumb, one that will rarely lead you wrong, is always to avoid comma after "So" at the start of a sentence, immediately after a semicolon, or immediately after a comma. Removal of such a clause from the sentence would alter the intended meaning. However, you should not use one before the “s” in decades or centuries: The early 1800s were a time of rapid change. So far we’ve dealt exclusively with the use of commas in dates at the end of sentences. Thank you for subscribing to our newsletter! Colon: Capitalize the first word after a colon only if it’s followed by a complete sentence. Do not use a comma when using a phrase like “as well as,” in which the clause is essential and restrictive. Writing & Copyediting Resources ... For a direct quotation of two or more sentences with the attribution at the beginning of the first sentence, put a colon, not a comma, after the attribution and place the quotation in double quotation marks. Switch A, which was on a panel, controlled the recording device. Or not. Use a comma to set off a person’s town of residence, age and other such information: “Tom Menino, Boston, was a popular speaker”; “Jean Dupont, 32, was released yesterday.” Period: Use only one space after the end of a sentence. Give the prize to the student who arrives first. For instance: An independent clause is a clause that would convey a complete thought if it were to be set apart as a sentence on its own. ✓. 4. ¶ Over 1.5 million copies sold! Times: 4 p.m. Notice that AP style does not include a colon and two zeroes when referring to an even hour. AP Style Quotes Ellipses Examples: Without ellipsis: “After much deliberation, I decided yesterday that it was time for me to retire from this sport, hopefully leaving me enough healthy years to pursue my passion for writing.” With ellipsis: “I decided … it was time for me to retire from this sport,” said the seven-time champion. Write it. When to use an apostrophe with decades and centuries. Whether to use “On” before a day or date. Spell out numbers used at the beginning of a sentence: “Ten thousand people … ✓, Last Tuesday’s parade drew a crowd of 14,000. Often so is used in a similar way as the last example, as a conjunction, but placed at the start of a sentence; The puppy was cute. Grammar Ap style. The basic date format recommended in AP style. Commas almost always follow phrases at the beginning of sentences; use the comma to separate the phrase from the independent clause. between two parts of a compound predicate, (adapted from the sixth edition of the APA Publication Manual, © 2010), © 2020 American Psychological Association, 750 First St. NE, Washington, DC 20002-4242, Telephone: (800) 374-2721; (202) 336-5500, in a study by Spencer, Girard, and Singh (2010). In literary terms, it is a clause that can stand on its own two feet. The new policy applies to faculty as well as staff. Whether it’s okay to start a sentence with a year. B. The Associated Press Stylebook says, “Do not use on before a date or day of the week when its absence would not lead to confusion, except at the beginning of a sentence.” We agree with AP and … However, if the sentence continues after the year, you also need a comma after the date. The same applies to days of the week (i.e., Mon, Tue, Wed, Thu, Fri, Sat, Sun), which should always be written in full elsewhere. Often so is used in a similar way as the last example, as a conjunction, but placed at the start of a sentence; The puppy was cute. The Associated Press has a stylebook with rules and standards used primarily in journalistic and news writing. You can also upload a document to get an instant quote. If you decide to use this style, make sure you do so consistently.) Incorrect: The man ate breakfast at 8 a.m., and lunch at noon.” Correct: “The main ate breakfast at 8 a.m. and lunch at noon.” Use commas to separate subordinate clauses within a sentence. While AP Style is largely sound, there are a few rules that are quite subjective. Marilyn baked a dozen cookies, and she ate them. And then, we come to using so at the start of a sentence. There are a couple of reasons why we wouldn’t normally see a comma-followed so in writing. Commas and Dates at the Beginning of Sentences. 6, 1982 ✗. Specific AP Comma Rules In AP style, omit the comma before the last item in a simple series, such as "Joe, John and Steve." A. Lucius Caesar died at Massilia in 2 CE. ✗. C. Do not use a comma before a partial quotation. And if you’d like help proofreading documents in AP style, our editors are available 24/7. However, you can also adapt the guidance here if you’re writing for an audience that uses a day-month-year date format, such as in the UK. Starting with so. Whatever. Many businesses and news outlets use the guidelines set out in the Associated Press Stylebook (also known as AP style). With full date, use commas before and after year. AP style: The concert will be Feb. 10, 2016,at Carson Music Hall. However, if the sentence continues after the year, you also need a comma after the date. The AP style says that a comma is not needed between two clauses that have the same subject. Put it at the end of the clause that while introduces. In the “olden” days, the rule was to put a comma after ANY element that came at the beginning of the sentence. However, if the sentence continues after the year, you also need a comma after … If you have an introductory word (or two) that is being used as an adverb (usually answers the question of when, where, why, or to what degree), then no comma. Here is an example of a sentence consisting of two independent clauses. In this post, we explain: For more information on all the above, read on below. ✓. But if you’re using while to mean “whereas,” you still need to put a comma somewhere. Comma After a Short Introductory Phrase . Use a comma for a series that included elements containing and or or Hyphen CJ However, if you do, use a comma to set it off from the rest of the date: In addition, AP style recommends using a day of the week to avoid vague time elements, such as “today,” “tonight,” “tomorrow,” or “yesterday”: The main street was closed Tuesday for a parade. Here are a few clarifications from Textbroker for where we stand on these issues. ... A clause beginning with which should usually be set off with commas. 4. As such, you may want to ignore this rule if you’re writing for a UK audience (or readers in another country where day-month-year dates are standard). “I just don’t understand,” he sighed. In the following, for instance, we include “on” to clarify that we’re referring to “Dr. The rule today that many people get confused about is the rule about putting a comma after a prepositional phrase at the beginning of the sentence. The quarterback looked well in the first quarter. Chicago and AP agree, do not use st, nd, rd, or th on date, even though you pronounce it. So, I picked it up. When to include the day of the week in a date. Much casual writing now uses comma that way, creating confusion about commas after FANBOYS. AP style dictates specific comma … Do not use commas after a man’s name if he is a “Jr.,” “Sr.” “II,” “III,” etc. Chicago style: The concert will be February 10, 2016, at Carson Music Hall. The Chicago Manual of Style Online is the venerable, time-tested guide to style, usage, and grammar in an accessible online format. But it makes an exception for years, which can go at the start of a sentence: As such, it’s fine to do this as long as the sentence reads smoothly. Use a comma to set off a person’s town of residence, age and other such information: “Tom Menino, Boston, was a popular speaker”; “Jean Dupont, 32, was released yesterday.” Period: Use only one space after the end of a sentence. Comma Don’t use a comma before a conjunction in a simple series. Oxford style requires the use of the comma to avoid confusion, hence the name Oxford comma. The rule today that many people get confused about is the rule about putting a comma after a prepositional phrase at the beginning of the sentence. Capitalize the first word after a colon only if it is a proper noun or the start of a complete sentence. She smiled, “You’ll want to read this GateHouse Newsroom post about how to properly use quotation marks in AP style stories then.” The AP Stylebook has a few simple rules for using quotation marks in AP style stories. Wrong: Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr. Colon: Capitalize the first word after a colon only if it’s followed by a complete sentence. Place a comma after a one-sentence quotation that does not end with a question mark or exclamation point. What follows are summaries of some of the most common style rules. The more nuanced answer follows: ✓, The Council met on Tuesday to discuss the plan. The Associated Press Stylebook provides an A-Z guide to issues such as capitalization, abbreviation, punctuation, spelling, numerals and many other questions of language usage. For instance: Born Jan. 17, 1984, Mr. Albert went on to… ✓. The department prefers bullets, but punctuate them per AP style: After each bullet, capitalize the first letter and use periods at the end of each item. So, should you put a comma after introductory words such as now, today, etc.? Wait—not what you wanted to hear? Do NOT use a comma when you only have two items in a series. Academic Writing Tips: What Are Study Limitations? Freeman” on a specific day, not someone called “Dr. between elements (including before and and or) in a series of three or more items.. the height, width, or depth; in a study by Spencer, Girard, and Singh (2010) to set off a nonessential or nonrestrictive clause, that is, a clause that embellishes a sentence but if removed would leave the grammatical structure and meaning of the sentence intact. It also prompts the reader to take a small pause before moving onto the next word. The AP Stylebook recommends setting apart the year in a date with commas. Introductory clauses are dependent clauses that provide background information or \"set the stage\" for the main part of the sentence, the independent clause. David Minthorn, the former deputy standards editor for the AP Stylebook said he was surprised at the attention they received a few years ago when they decided to change the “hopefully” entry and say it was fine to use it at the beginning of a sentence as a sentence adverb to mean “I’m hopeful that something will happen.” In formal writing, in contrast to a casual style, a so that begins a sentence is not followed by a comma. The exception to this rule is tabular material, where you can use three-letter forms with no periods (i.e., Jan, Feb, Mar, Apr, May, Jun, Jul, Aug, Sep, Oct, Nov, Dec). You don’t usually need to give the day of the week with a date. D. Note that quoting the title of something does not require a comma. Submit a 500-word sample document for free to find out more. This is because the “s” here indicates a plural, not possession. Further, using the Oxford comma ensures there is no miscommunication. Marilyn baked a dozen cookies and ate them. STUDY. When while is the first word of your sentence, you obviously shouldn’t add a comma in front of it. The guidelines help writers present clear and concise information with consistent structure to keep readers focused. The puppy was cute, so I picked it up. AP style: Please call before Oct. 1to reserve your room. The full name is not required if the company name is irrelevant to the story, and you don’t have to use the formal name on first reference. Times: 4 p.m. Notice that AP style does not include a colon and two zeroes when referring to an even hour. You can see this in the examples above, where we put a comma between the date and the year to separate the numerals. ✗. When the date appears at the beginning of a sentence, you apply the same rules but include a comma after the year: Correct: … ✗. Now, you may, or may not, have noticed that in my example sentence there is no comma before the and in that list. So whether you want to follow this rule may depend on where your audience is based and your chosen dialect. Chicago style: Thursday, November 12, 2015, was a normal day. In the second example, the three phrases, all beginning with different verbs, are parallel, and the commas work with the verbs to demonstrate that … Period. The most important aspect of dates in AP style is to use Arabic numerals for dates and years instead of writing them out in full as words: The event was held on the first of June 1987. We hope this post has clarified the basics of dates in AP style. Example: Kathy said that I should "pay it forward." AP Style states: A comma is used to separate an introductory clause or phrase from the main clause:When he had tired of the mad pace of New York, he moved to Dubuque. With this in mind, we’ll note issues below where UK conventions for writing dates would differ from those recommended in the AP Stylebook. Use a Comma with “So” + an Independent Clause. Libraries around the world use the Dewey Decimal System to organize written works. The exceptions include years, page numbers, and street addresses. ¶ It is the indispensable reference for writers, editors, proofreaders, indexers, copywriters, designers, and publishers, informing the editorial canon with sound, definitive advice. I got an e-mail from a reader named Mike who had a question about the sentence “Soon I will go to the office,” which I had used as an example in a piece I wrote. to separate two independent clauses joined by a conjunction. There is some leeway with prepositional phrases. You can see this in the examples above, where we put a comma between the date and the year to separate the numerals. Subscribe to our newsletter and get writing tips from our editors straight to your inbox. Cite it. In formal writing, so at the beginning of a sentence would not likely be followed by a comma. It depends! Spell out numbers used at the beginning of a sentence: “Ten thousand people marched on the capital.” Exception: Never spell out years: “1999 was a terrible year for technology companies.” You can see this in the examples above, where we put a comma between the date and the year to separate the numerals. This helps to ensure clarity for the reader about the date in question. Okay, let me try to break it down. The switch that stops the recording device also controls the light. Introductory Clauses. This page reflects guidance from the sixth edition of the Publication Manual. Trusted by thousands of leading institutions and businesses. ✗. And you should include it to prevent ambiguity. The AP Stylebook recommends setting apart the year in a date with commas. So, I picked it up. This means use a comma after a participial phrase, an absolute phrase, an infinitive phrase, and a prepositional phrase. And then, we come to using so at the start of a sentence. However, you don’t need to abbreviate March, April, May, June, or July: January 1, 2014 ✗                Jun. True. Find it. When you use a conjunction at the start of a sentence… That applies regardless of what "so" means there or what grammatical term you think would describe it. to set off a nonessential or nonrestrictive clause, that is, a clause that embellishes a sentence but if removed would leave the grammatical structure and meaning of the sentence intact. That final comma before the and in a list is called an Oxford comma, or serial comma. Doing so also helps search engines find your content. Consider Costco Wholesale Corp. as an example. It is often stated as something like “Put a comma after a prepositional phrase at the beginning of the sentence that has four words or more.” ✓, The main street was closed yesterday for a parade. Sorry. Give the book to whoever arrives first. The results contradicted Smith's hypothesis and indicated that the effect was nonsignificant. Right: Dr. Martin Luther King Jr. The first of these is called a simple sentence with a compound predicate. If you have an introductory word (or two) that is being used as an adverb (usually answers the question of when, where, why, or to what degree), then no comma. Cedar shavings covered the floor, and paper was available for shredding. Use the company’s full name somewhere in the article, especially if the article’s subject matter could affect the company’s business. According to the AP Stylebook, you use a comma to separate elements in a series, but never before the conjunction in most simple series (e.g., the flag is red, white and blue). While at the Beginning of a Sentence. It’s appropriate to refer to the company as Costco, but you’ll want t… ; two years later, Gaius Caesar succumbed to a wound he received fighting against Armenian nationalists. AP Style Resources. Writing Tips: The Basics of Punctuation in AP Style. Mike wanted to know “Shouldn't there be a comma after soon?” Sure. The same rule applies to all coordinating conjunctions. True False. The words “gate” and “gait” sound the same, but they have different meanings. Colons go outside quotation marks unless they are part of the quoted material. But how should you write dates in AP style? Ah, the good old days! When abbreviating a decade, AP style requires an apostrophe at the start: The ‘beehive’ hair style was popular throughout the ‘60s. Place a comma before a one-sentence quotation. between elements (including before and and or) in a series of three or more items.. the height, width, or depth; in a study by Spencer, Girard, and Singh (2010) to set off a nonessential or nonrestrictive clause, that is, a clause that embellishes a sentence but if removed would leave the grammatical structure and meaning of the sentence … AP style: Thursday, Nov. 12, 2015,was a normal day. If you refer to a month without an exact date, though, always write it in full: The August holidays were sunny and warm. PLAY. Most authorities, including The Associated Press Stylebook and The Chicago Manual of Style, recommend a comma after the first digit of a four-digit number. ✓, During the 1950’s, there was a post-war baby boom. Writing & Copyediting Resources ... For a direct quotation of two or more sentences with the attribution at the beginning of the first sentence, put a colon, not a comma, after the attribution and place the quotation in double quotation marks. AP style recommends omitting the word “on” before a day or a date: The Council met Tuesday to discuss the plan. to set off the year in parenthetical reference citations, to separate groups of three digits in most numbers of 1,000 or more. before an essential or restrictive clause, that is, a clause that limits or defines the material it modifies. The second is a compound sentence. between elements (including before and and or) in a series of three or more items. ✓. For example:(introductory dependent clause, main clause)(introductory dependent clause, main clause) Commas and Years in Dates. We personally are not fans of the Oxford comma — and coincidentally, neither is AP style. Freeman Tuesday”: As with setting apart the year with commas, though, omitting the “on” in this context is rarer in British English. The puppy was cute, so I picked it up. The sentence, “I like dogs, cats, and birds” looks visually correct because there is a comma after “dogs,” so there should be a comma after “cats,” too. The AP Stylebook recommends setting apart the year in a date with commas. And if you’re referring to an event more than a week from your publication date, give the date instead of the day of the week: The parade, which took place on May 14, drew a crowd of 14,000. Commas and Years in Dates. In the first sentence, the commas are important because each item presented is distinctly different from its adjacent item. If the series includes internal commas that necessitate semicolons or uses a conjunction such as "and," include the comma. The rule is to use a comma only when the second clause has its own explicit subject. This is because the “ s ” here indicates a plural, not bullets, for instance Born! Met Tuesday to discuss the plan guidelines help writers present clear and concise information with consistent structure keep! In parenthetical reference citations, to separate the numerals was nonsignificant fighting against Armenian nationalists are a of. This in the following, for instance, we include “ on ” to clarify comma after so at beginning of sentence ap style we ’ re while! Rephrasing the sentence would alter the intended meaning an absolute phrase, an infinitive,. ” to clarify that we ’ re referring to “ Dr including before and and or ) in a with! 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You Don ’ t usually need to give the day of the clause that can stand on issues. And after year a list is called an Oxford comma ensures there is no miscommunication a small pause before onto! Have two items in a quotation that does not end with a year the word... Search engines find your content or restrictive clause, that is a complete sentence 24/7... Faculty as well as staff guidelines help writers present clear and concise information with consistent structure to readers.