Distribution of ocean currents; Causes of ocean currents. Large-scale surface ocean currents are driven by global wind systems that are fueled by energy from the sun. Because of this, the temperature in the pole is not extremely cold. Pressure gradients; Coriolis effect; Frictional forces; Geostrophic currents; Ekman layer; Two types of ocean circulation. Currents, Waves, and Tides oh my. Math. Even though the wind became one of the factor that affect the surface current but the effect is quite big. The water in the bottom of the ocean is rich of nutrient. Today, I would like to share you with about the types of ocean currents. These waters make up the other 90% of the ocean. Science - 5th .  They are found below 400 meters and make up about 90% of the ocean. This current can be affected by wind, weather condition and tides (because of gravity). The 5 Effects of Climate Change on Marine... How Climate Change Affect The Color of Sea... How Global Warming Damage The Coral Reefs. 1.6k plays . The oceans transfer heat by their currents, which take hot water from the equator up to higher latitudes and cold water back down toward the equator. Wind-driven circulation. Instead of airflow, these currents primarily arise from variations in the density of seawater, controlled by its temperature and salt content (salinity). Ocean currents are primarily horizontal water movements. For example, the wind, tides, water density, rotation and even ocean floor topography influences currents in the oceans. The current help our climate to stay in balance because it will move the water with a certain temperature to another places that has a different temperature. Copyright 2020 Leaf Group Ltd. / Leaf Group Media, All Rights Reserved. This is a product of Mexus Education Pvt. The wind can move about 400 m of the top ocean water and because of this, the wind affect the ocean current. When you learn about the ocean surface current you will know about gyres. When the moon, sun, and Earth line up, particularly strong tides (“spring tides”) result that can dramatically affect water levels. Characteristic of Drought Season and Countries Experiencing It, 6 Factors Affecting Air Temperature and The Explanation, Causes of Typhoon Hagibis and The Impacts of Mitigation Methods, Sand Boil Phenomenon Explanation and How to Overcome, Characteristics of Freshwater Swamp Forests – Functions – Distributions. From that nutrient, plankton in the upper part of the ocean can get another food source that keep them alive. For sure this route is made based on the fish migration from one place to another places. MHRD NME-ICT  Deep water currents are another category of ocean currents. Ocean currents hugely impact humankind and the biosphere in general, first and foremost due to their influence on climate. The deeper part of the ocean you dive in, the more plankton and nutrient that you will find. Taking an analogy of a hose. These waters make up about 10% of all the water in the ocean. Ocean currents transfer heat from one part of the world to another, and this movement of heat affects the climate; Subjects. Now, moving on to another deep ocean current type of down-welling. It can drives our ocean current into a different track and make it does such a chaos. Types of Ocean Currents Based on depth. Currents form rotating systems in the middle of major ocean systems called gyres. An ocean current is a continuous, directed movement of sea water generated by a number of forces acting upon the water, including wind, the Coriolis effect, breaking waves, cabbeling, and temperature and salinity differences. Surface Currents and Deep Ocean Currents. They are - waves, tides and ocean currents. Surface Currents--Surface Circulation. These currents move because of solar heating and … The action created by tides can impact both types of currents by modifying depth levels and water displacement. There is one surface current that carries the biggest amount of ocean water in the North Atlantic Ocean which is The Gulf Stream. When you put a rock inside the hose, the water will move upward and it flows harder than before because it was looking for a hole to be passed. Both types of ocean currents are measured using units called Sverdrup (Sv). Wind-driven circulation. Human activities that can affect the ocean current such as throwing garbage to the sea, mining, coastal development, and etc. Ocean currents are patterns of water movement and patterns that influence climate zones and weather patterns around the world. Surface currents, which include coastal currents and surface ocean currents, are driven primarily by winds. Early on, the study of currents was important due to shipping concerns: A knowledge of ocean currents allowed sailors to safely reach their destination, or to get there more quickly. And or by another words we would like to use ocean current as a natural mover for ship will be more beneficial for us. However both of them will have horizontal and vertical movement. Waves, Currents, and Tides . The warm Gulf Stream originating in the tropical Caribbean, for instance, carries about 150 times more water than the Amazon River. The ocean currents may be classified based on their depth as surface currents and deep water currents; (i) surface currents constitute about 10 percent of all the water in the ocean, these waters are the upper 400 m of the ocean. She received her LEED accreditation from the U.S. Green Building Council in 2008 and is in the process of working towards an Architectural Hardware Consultant certification from the Door and Hardware Institute. It can bring 4500 times more water compare to the amount of water in the Mississippi River. Such as, gas cycling, conveyor belt, and etc. Names, direction, nature....and what not! Surface means the current will only exist in the ocean water surface. The pushing action of these winds makes the waters flow as they do. Depth contours, shoreline configurations, and interactions with other currents influence a current's direction and strength. Having reliable knowledge about the tides and tidal currents is important for navigating ships safely, and for engineering projects such as tidal and … TL;DR (Too Long; Didn't Read) Two major kinds of currents define the planet's oceans: surface currents driven by wind and deep-water currents driven by variations in … Besides that, the Coriolis effect is an effect caused by the wind that makes the ocean current track is shift from its normal wind direction. There are different types of movements of ocean water under the influence of different physical characteristics like temperature, salinity, density, etc. Usually, the horizontal movement of ocean current is short. 15 Qs . Taking an example of tides current, rip current, long-shore current, and etc and most of them are classified into the surface ocean current. 20 Qs . The ocean surface current is the current that carry heat from one place to another places and make the temperature stay in balance. Their movement forms thermohaline circulation (“thermo” meaning temperature, “haline” meaning salinity) which crosses ocean basins and links to surface currents in what’s called the “global conveyor belt.”, In very simplified form, water moving into the polar regions gets cold enough to freeze into ice, leaving its share of salt behind; this makes the underlying water saltier, which in turn makes it denser. 9th - 12th grade. Distribution of ocean currents; Causes of ocean currents. The deep current moves toward the equator and warms up, becoming less dense and rising to the surface in “upwellings.”. These waters move around the ocean basins by density driven forces and gravity. When the movement of deep ocean current is upwelling this means that the cold water from the bottom of the ocean is going up to the surface. Some ocean currents flow at the surface; others flow deep within water. Basically, gyres is a large form of ocean current. They are: 1. Tides 3. The currents associated with the tides are called flood currents (incoming tide) and ebb currents (outgoing tide). Through this analogy you can understand better why throwing garbage to the sea will create sedimentation and it will also changing the ocean current. Some currents flow for short distances; others cross entire ocean basins and even circle the globe. Having covered the fundamentals, we shall see in this post, a super-fast way to learn the details of ocean currents. As you know that heat energy or in this case is the ocean water from equator region will move to the cooler place which is the polar region. Surface currents refer to movement of the top layer of ocean water – the upper 330 feet or so – primarily driven by wind. Well, you might have heard so many names like Kuroshio current, Oyashio current, Peru current etc. Surface currents develop anti-clockwise spirals in the southern hemisphere. Finally, the lesson contrasts the differences between surface and deep ocean currents. 2. That is all about today’s article of types of ocean current. In our geography notes on the hydrosphere, we have seen the major movements of the ocean water. While ocean currents themselves can have flow rates of hundreds or thousands of Sv per second, the total Sv flow for all the freshwater sources in the world is only equal to about 1 Sv: a demonstration of the massive scale of ocean currents compared to the flow of rivers. Pressure gradients; Coriolis effect; Frictional forces; Geostrophic currents; Ekman layer; Two types of ocean circulation. For example, surface currents control the motion of about 10% of the upper ocean space. Surface ocean currents are typically wind-driven, resulting in both horizontal and vertical water movement. Based on the depth there are two types of ocean current which are the surface and deep ocean current. Arts and Humanities. Mainly there are two types: the surface circulation and the bottom circulation. Studying about the ocean current also help us to know the fishing route. This video explains in detail the phenomenon of ocean currents and their role in nature. Horizontal surface currents that are local and typically short term include rip currents, longshore currents, and tidal currents. Explanation of Split Sea Phenomenon in Suramadu. 12 Qs . Or what species of fish that has a migration against the ocean currents. Languages. Tides create a current in the oceans, near the shore, and in bays and estuaries along the coast. Ocean current is also important for the last of many living beings. The good impact that we can feel up to now is that the existence of fish. Both bad and good impact can we do to our ecosystem just like a simple example of throwing garbage to the ocean. Hopefully now you know more about the importance of ocean current and this will make you want to learn more about it. These waters are the upper 400 meters of the ocean. Oceanic currents are driven by several factors. What are the two types of ocean currents? Oceanic currents are found all over the globe and vary in size, importance, and strength. © DeepOceanFacts.com -All Right Reserved. Warm Currents and Cold Currents: There are two types of ocean currents. Due to this transfer of heat, climate near large bodies of water is often extreme and at times, unpredictable. There are two type of Ocean Currents: 1. 8. Emily Beach works in the commercial construction industry in Maryland. Warm currents are masses of warm water with higher temperatures moving away from the equator. Today, an understanding of ocean currents can dramatically reduce shipping times and fuel costs. The two basic types of currents – surface and deep-water currents – help define the character and flow of ocean waters across the planet. Cold currents are formed when the air circulating the eastern side of the subtropical high is blown over cold water mass and are then dragged toward the equator. Tidal currents are the only type of current affected by the interactions of the Earth, sun, and moon. The two basic types of currents – surface and deep-water currents – help define the character and flow of ocean waters across the planet. Even though the wind became one of the factor that affect the surface current but the effect is quite big. Because, no matter how small thing you have done can create a big big impact toward our ecosystem. Equatorial currents; The subtropical gyres; The subpolar gyres; The Antarctic Circumpolar Current; Thermohaline circulation 2.4k plays . Currents can be distinguished from tides, regular increases and decreases in the level of the sea surface. Upwelling takes place in some coastlines along the equator. Then, deep ocean currents occupy the other 90%. The ocean water in the equator areas will be hotter compare to the ocean water in the polar region. This is simply because we let the ocean current drives our ship into our destination. The ocean current is not only being affected by natural phenomena but it also can be affected by human activities. The following factors cause ocean currents: (a) The prevailing winds are the major cause of the ocean waters moving in a definite direction. Ocean currents are created by wind, water temperature, salt content, and the gravity of the moon. When the structure is changed for sure it will affect the ocean current. Digital Vision./Digital Vision/Getty Images, NOAA: Ocean Service Education -- Currents: The Global Conveyor Belt, NOAA: National Weather Service -- Ocean Circulations. And because of that transport, the ekman transport also creating the ekman spiral where there is a water layers exist with a different direction and speed. Ocean currents are also critically important to sea life. It is also known as conveyor belt. Ocean Waves and Currents . Down-welling is a condition where the water from the ocean surface is going down. One major example of an ocean current is the Gulf Stream in the Atlantic Ocean. The other types of currents, deep ocean currents, also known as thermohaline circulation or ocean conveyer belts. The wind can move about 400 m of the top ocean water and because of this, the wind affect the ocean current. Because I am pretty sure you don’t know yet about how the wind affecting and creating the downwelling effect I would like to explain to you about the ekman transport and coriolis effect. And also, hopefully through this article you can realize how important our role as a human inside the ecosystem. Ocean Currents . This cold, dense, saltier water sinks to the seafloor, replaced by surface waters that repeat the process. To let you know more about this I will explain it to you one by one. There are two types of gyres which are the flow clockwise in the Northern Hemisphere oceans and counterclockwise in the Southern Hemisphere. But not only that, we should know more about the ocean current. They are related to different characteristics of ocean waters, rotational mechanism of the earth, external factors or atmospheric factors, topographic characteristics of the coasts and ocean basins. Tropics to the amount of ocean current as a human inside the ecosystem you should not missed... 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